Counter-mapping attackers and organized crime in Canada, US and Europe

Mapping patterns for surveillance and criminalization of targeted individuals in public institutions

During the time I was a precarious PhD sholar in academia (2007-2013), I observed how policies of criminalization and victimization are being instrumentalized against targeted individuals by the colluded dark State with the use and coordination of malveillant tactics (Debaveye, 2015) to cover frauds and power abuses.

With the increase of tech authoritarism and procedural laws aiming at targeting individuals for serving the personal interests of state and local government attackers, the instrumentalization of breaches – caused by situations of vulnerability as precarity, social exclusion, gender, ethnia or lack of education and means of populations – can cause high prejudices and deep hurts at society.

State agents target at certain persons or categories of persons, as women, foreigners or critical intellectuals, with directed attacks unfairly based on assumptions and discriminant stereotypes. By doing so, they deprive them from valuables, resources and personal data, and prevent them from contributing positively, at their full extent, to the social transformations allowed by emergent technologies, through processes of persistent and systematic denials of their integrity, value and identity.

As I have pointed in my researches in science and technology studies (2012b), there are a certain number of claims raising concerns about the surveillance of targeted individuals by networks of crime and public paid agents, with the help of monitoring technologies and normative procedures and strategies (Debaveye, 2012a, 2015)

The persons facing abusive targeted surveillance have to constantly fight against the denial and extinction of their voices in the public spheres due to the distortion, decontextualization-recontextualization, cultural appropriation, erasure and manipulation used to serve political and financial interests (2015) from agents aiming at reaching personal recognition and profits.

Public agents manipulate the authority and leadership bestowed by institutions to create fake scientific arguments, viewpoints and environments, using their institutional access to infiltrate and spoliate the private lives of targeted individuals, mostly women, immigrant and persons of colour. That’s what female STS scholars as Jasanoff call the ‘god trick of science’ (Debaveye, 2012).

Having experienced these forms of attacks, dicrimination and an ostracization during my years as a precarious PhD scholar at University Laval in Montreal, I can testify about the procedures employed by attackers to track the personal details of their target using public and private details in order to impersonate the identity of the targeted victim with my observations and notes.

They also access places and people I am in touch with while on my personal time during worktime periods or on holidays to collect private informations and personal life details that they would use to spread false news and lies about me.

They maintain a focus on privacy and sexuality in their attacks. By targeting your sexual life and attribute, they damage from the inside with a “symbolical rape”.

I have discussed the notion of sexuality in social networks in the context of AIDS politics, to show how AIDS activists and their families were dismissed and denied from their rights and access to care and compensations by the State focusing on sex speeches.

State uses political violence and discrimination against social activists and whistleblowers with access to intimacy and sexuality to silent, hurt, repress and kill (See chapter 2 for contextual theory and 4 for data analysis of my PhD dissertation, Debaveye, 2012b).

The day of my defense on the 29th of november 2012 in Lyon (who soon appeared to be a honeytrap), I was asked by one member of the Committee thesis – who joined the Comittee 6 months before defense so I actually didn’t know it at the time I wrote this chapter – and with a kind of ironic smile (a professor at Laval University who at the time was an assistant teacher)  ‘what I meant by that’ when referring to sex in politics.

I pointed out to the normalization of speech by science and politics in the constitution of knowledge and on procedures of exclusion (as theorized by Foucault).

This point is not really central in my dissertation as I use the case of AIDS activists in controversies as a starting point for studying digital mobs and knowledge sharing practices, but focusing on sexuality with connotations and implicits allow attackers to create scandals in order to damage and discredit the reputation of the targeted victim :

In the context of canadian politics of language sanitization, in which the diversity of viewpoints and the right to access information and reply  – for which public institutions are accountable (but not individuals) – are denied, targeted victims become the unilateral target of persistent cabals, online and offline, directing flows of hate speech and rumors at them, in order to steal their value and identity by impersonating details of the victim’s life.

By portraying targeted persons as impure to justify the negation of their human and civic rights, authoritarian policies lead path to press and media censure and repression of dissents. In response, targeted persons often concede to give extensive descriptions of their personal lives to public paid agents to escape jail or persecution.

The same patterns obervable at borders for national security policies by the Homeland Security Departments at play within the US, Canada and EU policies, are observable in the health and housing sector (real estate).

It is crucial to establish what spheres of the public affairs, be it urban planning, control immigration, police at borders, aviation industry, intell agencies services, heath sectors or privately funded academia and press, might be putting targeted persons’ bodies, works and identities at high risk of damage.

Furtherly I am questionning the responsibility of national governments and State colluding with corporations, consultancy firms and international organizations in charge with the regulation and governance of the foreign and scientific policies, with the procedures of management of populations and the public systems of informations, about the negative impacts of such power abuses to ensure human self-preservation.

It dismisses the possibility to repair the prejudices with financial or emotional compensations and to punish the criminal agents.

What occur when public administrations and public organizations as academia and cities are being influenced with logics of global forces and systemic self-preservation that are detrimental to ordinary citizens’ survival and targeted individuals conditions of living ?

How to find the means to control and fight the pressures of financial capitalism to make the States comply with the duty of protecting citizens, and specifically targeted persons and groups at borders, in hospital or illiterate persons, and social justice activists, regarding of privacy laws to protect them from frauds, abuses and thieves, and to guaranty the respect of their rights ?

Are networks of organized crime, human trafficking and financial corruption secretly contributing into the reinforcement of discriminative public policies against targeted individuals in order to silent them by the means of coercion so to maintain the networks of human exploitation that benefit them active?

Through the use of technical procedures, the dissemination of over-generalized beliefs and criminal convictions – based on the systemic trackdown of the most personal details : holidays, homes, friends, lovers, family relatives,… – might contribute indeed at restricting permanently the civic liberties and individual freedoms of targeted persons.

By putting them into situations of oppression that expose them to unconceivable rates of technical, structural, procedural and bureaucratic violence (Debaveye, 2012b), they attempt at their online identities’ integrity and at their conditions of living.

To restaure the loss and damaged identities for the people living under such conditions of oppression, we need to define and categorize our future practices, social identities to sustain the transmission of our economical and political forms and to encourage the decentralization of power in the spaces between the local and the global (Debaveye, 2012b, ).

In this work, the ontology of authenticity has been acquired through the capture of live streaming emotional responses as acts of sousveillance on Twitter and from narratives of persons and groups targeted by violence, with the help of an in-depth and fine-grained qualitative information design.

Local texts and stories are seen as potential new ways to reground and shape personal experiences and everyday expertises through memories, artistic works and testimonies posted and shared online to contribute to a better vision if our future.

Mass and targeted surveillance through procedures of exclusion causing high damage

Putting into question the problem of the derealization caused by data manipulation and multiple misuses and misconducts in AI development as well as the influence of desinformation is at the core of this work.

By doing so, we want to show how predictive policies and governmental rational procedures might be held accountable for producing slaves system violence causing crimes and neglects. The point of this work is to push organizations and third parties agents not to hide under the veil of immunity.

Targeted persons and groups are being exposed for their physical and psychical vulnerability in contexts of war, due to situations of precarity and scarcity. As they have high sexual, reproductive and symbolical value, their bodies and works can be exploited for forced marriage, sexual trafficking, prostitution and pornography by networks of crime.

Immigrants and travellers for example are often targeted by ostracized procedures of criminal networks. In Canada, 105 cases were filled by travellers to complaint about police misconducts at borders. Refugees advocates are concerned with the criminalization of migrants and asylum seekers while bills are passing that associate asylum seekers to crime which might lead to discriminative policies.

Nevertheless we don’t hear much about the testimonies of abuses at borders as canadian liberal policies have done much to  protect their interests for portraying the country as a a country of tolerance and equality of chances, by censuring the diversity of political viewpoints with “anti hate speech” laws.

In emerging economies, protective policies deployed by public administrations and international organizations have put vulnerable persons and targeted individuals at risk with the illegal practices of obscure economic laws of subjugation as domestic works, economic exploitation, sexual abuses and human trafficking.

Even the simplest mind can understand the value of the human body when a warrior gets weapons in exchange of a woman body and work. It is easy for anyone to take advantage of situations of vulnerability leading to child prostitution or forced marriage into foreign contexts, as targeted individuals are away from home, deprived of ressources provided by the social circle, family and relatives.

Isolated women and child became easy preys for predators.

The victims of the institutional cyber-violence and public agents cyber-terrorism are being denied of their basic human rights and integrity by the colluded state as the right to information and the freedom of speech when they try to make their claims heard and visible by officials or through social media or by ways of Justice.

In the e-health sector, individuals are being exposed to data sanitization when being in contact with the procedural apparatus of the administration of public and private hospital. These are issues that need to be adressed regarding of the administration of treatments by staff and e-teams on patients, the lack of ethical procedures and compliance with citizens civic rights, and the problem of self-evident truths.

Frequent SQL requests of sensitive, private and sensitive informations, undue procedures of private fact checking directed at targeted persons, data manipulation caused by mistakes, the use of non-ethical judgemental procedures – as deleting files and past data or using discriminative labels against targeted individuals – are all cases opening path for denouncing the pattern of abusive surveillance from State on citizens.

In spite of justified claims from the targeted persons exposed to sensitive information targeting, personal surveillance and criminalization based on stereotypes and miscategorizations, processes of inquiry and claims are systematically being denied, divered and tampered in order to censure potential feedbacks about errors, limits and problems linked with public administrations.

To stem from processes of evaluation and report on threats and attacks, intimidation is used against targeted individuals, going even until targeting the physical lives and goods, by ways of assaults.

As networks of crime get obsessional with their targets, miscategorization, victimization and dissmisal of people’s views and citizens’ rights expose targeted persons to further acts of violence. We argue that State is willingly engaging in the process of increasing abuses with the conduct of fascist politics instead of recognizing of their own faults and failures in order to give access to measures of reparation and compensation for the targeted victims.

Writing local stories from local voices

Social media texts and local stories are pertinent sources of information for a bottom-up perspective focusing on social texts. By the means of an inductivist and contextually qualitative design based on fine-grained observations (Debaveye, 2012b), we describe the ordinary and social realities of whose exposed in their everyday lives to high rates of systemic violence by State and local governments.

To render our work accessible, we made use of persona modelling that allow to embody the expressions of the local voices to give a more accurate account about the social experiences of routines and expertises disseminated through the network (Debaveye, 2012b).

This work aims at countering, fighting and debunking the flux of desinformations, filters, bias produced by a central vision with the use of quantitative and qualitative research methods in computational social science, for ethical decision making (Debaveye, 2015).

This work offers to highlight the accurate production leading to critical findings linked with direct levels of exposure to threat and exclusion during global economical transactions operated by Canadian, EU and British institutionnals and policies.

It critically considers the impacts of automation, code tyranny, economics ideologies, privacy and data manipulation and corruption to underline the causes for manipulation and ostracization of targeted victims.

The experiences from the insiders and counter-tactics deployed for survival as acts of sousveillance defined as “critical appropriations of dominant technology” (Debaveye, 2015) reveal the multiple patterns and the formal structures employed by central power to corrupt our public institutions and common goods.

Analysis and reports based on local stories and narratives can thus contribute to raise awareness about the pressing issues of the dissents’ criminalization and about the issue of the weaponization of tactics and strategies used on civilians and social justice advocates causing the persistence of well-documented social logics for persecution in State (Debaveye, 2012, 2015).

Texts and narratives perceived as minor, idiosynchrasic and thus ignored or denied, just as gatekeepers tend to judge “reasonable” contents by referring to the common wisdom or normative standards on which they base their view and moral judgement are under scope, are under focus.

Sorting things out from messy texts

The only thing needed for the triumph of Evil is for good men to do nothing.

Edmund Burke.

Via the study of acts of “sousveillance” and social texts locally produced (Debaveye, 2015), we offer to give more congruent definitions of what is going on in economical and transactional contexts experienced with public spaces and at borders.

We use emergent methodologies mixing qualitative observations, community narratives, intuitive coding and large data set social network analysis that overpass the watcher’s comprehension (Debaveye, 2012b) to reveal the processes that allow to an idea or a concept to come to creative fruition (Kuhn, 1978). This approach allow not to exclude the most creative expressions of knowledge.

Insider views are considered as accurate ways of producing new forms of knowledge that cannot be accessed with traditional tools of inquiry as surveys and statistics by providing feedback about real-life contexts instead of basing views on subjective interpretations or flawed correlations (Debaveye, 2012b) . It gives us a more pertinent, fair, authentical, and accurate view than with a top down, authoritarian approach.

Most critics made to positivist paradigm (Kuhn, 1978) made apparent indeed the problems of the lack of empiricity of analysis based on the narrow comprehension of the scientist. In such hypothetico-deductive models, over-emphasing on the most repetitive and random acts of production, the focus is on insignificant tasks rather that on the promissing of creative and emerging processes.

Data are manipulated into prefigurative models based on the scientists’ subjectivity, its own internal system and self-based fictions he created from non-grounded assumptions and stereotypes (as racism or sexism among other phenomenons), luring readers into pseudo-science and demarcationism (Popper).

In positist models, data are forced into theories and concepts before their emergence with the definitions of prior hypothesis and the pre-selection of factors, parameters and criterias that cause the reproduction of mistakes, past actions and discrimination, creating frontiers and artificial models of comprehension biased by scientific, financial interests or paradigmatic ideology (Debaveye, 2011b).

By showing and categorizing the multiple types of exclusion in a mapping of the diverse situations, people and places, we offer to put and end to the social exclusions of smart citizens, rare talents and creative thinkers as well as the painful experiences of the daily life.

We argue that evolution can be achieved by creating value from hybridation to enrich intuitive visioning based on real-time processes that can be refined over time to achieve much higher quality and allow for the emergence of the newness and avoid the reproduction of failures (Debaveye, 2012b).

Localizing toxic places and enabling spaces

By identifying bias and misrepresentations into the normative code of law and technology and by labelling attacks appropriately, we can disrupt the dominant narrative of financial capitalism and help at reconstructing the transient, honored and flexible identities of the targeted individuals.

As some spaces and hubs are enablers for transformation and social change, others create toxic backgrounds preventing social change and emancipation to happen.

The top down design imposes the perspective of the dominant expert who can, as God, and from his privileged position of distanciation, gives a universal account of the views. In response, we offer a bottom-up perspective.

This paradigm – mostly criticized today by critical academics – is source of the mere basic logics of domination spread via the culture of engineering and disseminated, with AI technics, in public administrations and international organizations. It overvalues the control of procedures and neglect the social dimensions involved, creating the conditions for blocking access at victims and whistle blowers’ economic emancipation (Debaveye, 2012b) – stateless in their own states, and exposed to criminal violence.

Instead we advocate for the representation of the mosaic of realities experienced from an insider perspective (Debaveye, 2012b).

It is thus critical to map the places, resources, means and practices that lead to the persistence of logics of exclusion as academia and the ones that can lead to social change and freedom from the double perspective of the individual part of society and the one of the qualitative researcher as small or medium entrepreneurship.

Mapping networks of attackers

More serious concerns appear for society when discrimination and stereotyping are instrumentalized to exploit the vulnerabilities of individuals in order to steal their sensitive informations, private data and local resources, as observed with banks and customers, health care sector with patients, administrative services with citizens, employers with employees.

This pattern is also observable in circles of innovation colluding with academia that concentrate financial capital and exploit private data and citizens’ works and resources without retributing them. Finally these two hubs are deeply interconnected raising issues for copyrights infrigements, plagiarism and data collection of sensitive informations.

By observing the attackers’ background in Montreal, Toronto, London, and Birsbane, we have listed the tactics of intimidation and attacks appearing though a typology of repetitive and obsessional behaviors and attitudes from attackers (as they persist over time and extended periods of time at different scale).

I categorized these behaviors as, 1. abrasive remarks (lack of skills, justification), 2. diverse acts ranging from minor micro-aggressions to higher aggressions (abrasivity, voice intonation, defamation), 3. calling and false representation (uncompetent, dangerous, frivolous, tourist). 4. mockeries 5. dismissing someone’s expertise or knowledge, 6. Attributing the credit of her work to others or 7. plagiarizing  9. intimidating and interacting physically 10. physically harassing, attacking or sexually/physically assaulting ( rape attempt, rape, physical violence).

Politics of repression and rhetorics of victimization from attackers are also commonly expressed through violent acts or campaigns of harassment and cyber-harassment consisting in spreading false rumors and defamation, with sometimes dramatical outcomes as revenge porning, doxxing, stealing of personal informations, hacking accounts.

The pattern of victimization typically consists of agents pretending to be assaulted or objects of attacks to mask the attacks they conduct meanwhile on targeted individuals.

The attitudes attackers use aim at belittling people in order to make them look or feel like inferiors, uncompetent or irrational  (edit nov 17), causing them discapacitations and feeling of inaptitudes due to the use of militarian and coercice forces  (works on war will document also that the killing of local populations also go through indirect harms as starvation, blocking access to care, autonomization or resources).

These processes of exclusion can go beyong the virtual and impact people’s physical relations through various sets of random behaviours. Predation – walking out of one’s way to intentionnally cross the other’s line, laught load, comment about someone’s appearance loadly or looking bad at people – indicates high level of stress and poor emotional responses in face of the challenges that pose big cities’ competition and cohabitation.

Harassment, insults, or physical assaults from the group of attackers freaking out are endangering the others’ lives and their opportunities to live a decent life.

Health services might cause sterotyping at naming distressed patients crazy, nuts, hatred, asocial or disabled following unprecise coding and overgeneralizations on groups encrypted in procedures and labels by technical agents who lack expertise in social sciences.

At borders, fake assumptions as labelling women seducive, French people racists, or foreigners hatred and motivated with bad intentions also expose them to repressive policies and acts of violence.

Considering that insults are verbal agressions, it is important to point that normalizations can minimize the impacts of structural and social violence and create a lack of attendance and support towards people in needs of attendance in situations of emergency.

On the other hands, the patient can be led to conceal sensitive and private data to prove his views when facins such approximations, as institutions tend to dismiss the expertise produced from grassroot, local experience and grounded practices.

The coding of procedures is thereby used to silent and ignore the social texts, tacit knowledges and archival material produced locally by subtituting the local knowledge with paternalistic and stereotypical views. Technology should then give more space for social research, usages and social analysis to refine and adjust procedures.

If not, technologies will become a place for enabling pseudo-science in medecine or policies with the legitimation of rhetorics used for neophytes to exclude targeted persons with diverse backgrounds from the experts group, encouraging a culture of rarity that is only revealed to a privileged class while the profanes remain out.

Predictive policies causing repressive politics via surveillance

Agents rather to act under the radar so there is a need for telling and describing social realities to counter the rhetorics of rationalization justifying the sacrifice of vulnerable  groups of persons for the preservation of the State.

Surveillance, tracking and management of targeted individuals is a very lucrative market for attackers as they make all their living from scams and stealings so they dedicate all their time to look for potential targets, putting their victim in situations of encirclement.

Sensitive areas’ projects planning the use of sensors in public places  to collect private and sensitive data via CCTVing, are involved with lot of pressure from diverse parties interests, putting these areas at risk with corruption and diversion of public goods.

Projects in the biotech sector, using technologies that have not completed the Ethical committees’ procedures and approvals are raising serious concerns for eugenics, bodies’ control and exploitation of political online identities in the administration of appropriated treatments, responses and procedures.

In a context of authoritarism, public agents are diverting the public resources and materials as police equipment and staff, intell agencies officers or surveillance technology from their purpose to exert a tyranny on others on the behalf of unity and cohesion.

But we see how such ambiguitous projects can be easily manipulated and derived from their initial purposes and used to control individual and collective trajectories for terror attacks.

Critical and social researchers denouncing these realities face today renewed levels of pressure, retaliations and intimidations from colluded government that deprive society for informed political debates.

With increased tactics of weaponization and jailification, policies can be used against targeted individuals to silent their voices with coercive technics as psychological manipulation – like pretending they are friends, coworkers, supporters… – and force them into doing things they don’t want to do.

Market places and information consumption

What is it that makes a city remain still is again really mysterious to me. Is it the activation of antic tokens without the integration of the otherness – the woman, the Alien, the stranger or the insider – and a sort of stiffness opposed to movement? Resistant dynamics and archaic mindsets prevent people from experiencing creative transformations.

Remains of activities are stucked into stones and still. Streets become concentrative hubs for markets through mass tourism, partisan media and unhealthy public debates or urban environments, emptied from the concept of humanness, replaced with constant consumption. Selfies. Malls. Dollars. Numbness.

Technologies are not meant to be the mere replicants and echo chambers of the dead old world, passing along rhetorics based on systemic violence. They are meant to allow the integration of the human, the diversity of the social life and the movement of multiple paths to counter some creepy technofascism, to provide a society enabled by technology (the true myth of the cyborg in the harawayan terms).

Technologies should then not be used to control or to design the oppressive city of the ubiquitous political technocrate but to enable the reflexions of the insiders on their own living system.

City are not only objects or chiffers. They’re populated with real selves looking for authentical and meaningful connections. Maths and profitability ideologies that encourage the manipulation of our living by State are creating places for war zones and death, normalizing a permanent culture for threat and torture for the sake of a deadly oligarchy.

…When empathy, respect for the others, are long gone, when society encloses people into systems, disembodied and nefarious cities are created.

When the most repelling thing is that people cannot escape the world made at the image of arrogant leaders, the city they live in, the media they read, the politics they choose, in a world that they had never contributed to create, when all the vibrant voices are silent, then this same world looses all savour, taste and happiness.

The process of ostracization is so routinely integrated into the systemic procedures used for demarcations by states and authoritarian policies (through random acts as recruitment procedures, training, funding process, immigration procedures, etc) that complex knowledge, based on the communality of daily experiences, are needed.

Epilogue : Copenhagen and back to home


Did I ever know this city?

Everything’s been perfect since my first seconds in there and I finally came to define what makes a culture smoothly integrative. Only a look at the city suffishes to make you feel serene. Some cult of gigantism and invasive screens in North america have made an image of pleasures filled with excitation and thrill. But screens are barriers.

A more in-depth and anchored connexion lasting to reveal, allowed by some infinite degrees of patience, empathy and tolerance, that leave the necessary spaces for a targeted person to express vision, meaning and courage, was the way to start an experiment that was not material but symbolical.

A shortened internal experience of combustion and synchronicity pre-existed; filled with the smiles and good intentions of the people around. Was it because I was a woman by my own? The sharing of genetics between Danish as Flamish creating an invisible thread?

Or the cultural process of being refined and respectful enough to refrain from the easy temptations of taking advantage of the rapist perspective, unwantedely willing by the victims.

The whys didn’t matter.

People were celebrating the return of the Spring and new beginnings, inviting others into their talks, showing high interests and suddenly sharing intimacy with more trust and confidence than they had ever done in the past, like some kids discovering and playing around, free of lust, full of joy.

We human are made of atoms and pieces of informations that connect, interact and intertwine permanently like a plasma.

I felt and appreciated the attention of the divine.

The magic of resilience is linked with the intrinsic nature of the city to welcome hosts but it’s also build from human activities, the proper energy surrounding a person of culture and love, as a unique gem, to overpass cultural differences and to take risk out of the physical limits of this world.

Biking the city with its smart networks free of any cars was a tremendous experience, riding all day long until 10pm, and talking with beautiful strangers to figure out who they were and what motivate them in life, engaging deeper into self exploration, interpersonal commitment and improvement of communications, arts and writings.

What made this first experience truly unique was its connection in a different space-time preceeding the hidden but extactic feeling of feeling home that inspired some original art crafts and creative writings.

Could we contribute to spread it around the same way we have experienced the manifestations of the divine ?

Digital revolution started with the Fée Electricité, The Fairy Electricity, as the first flux of information commonly shared among human. Information flowing into antic canals remixed with the newness and silently conveyed by the mix of media and technology, the interrelated networks of texts, subjects and interfaces entertwinned by people’s social practices and knowledges…

The Fairy Electricity described in Apollinaire’s poem is a Fairy for party and fun. Fun for all.

Advanced states of consciousness have allowed alternative ways to emerge and change the world we live in while stable dead forms have derailed into contempt and self-complacency.

The city i imagined is the resilient city my resilient soul and body are calling for : the informational city made as fluid as we dreamed it. A city of the minds and souls where people can go free without being enslaved in patterns of domination and annihilation.

This work was first of all a fight against the chimera that are being driven by AI technologies and AI propaganda without anyone noticing.

In Baudelaire’s poem, men are holding chimeras as parts of themselves, free of indignation, indifferent to them and resignated towards their ends.

The only emotions of the indignation remained to testify of the extent of the prejudices targeted persons have been exposed by politics of crime and perpetuation.

Chimeras, I’m waiting for you Chimeras.

[This post has been updated in 2017 following events that occured while I was conducting an ethnography at Montreal].

'Il ne suffit pas de lire que les sables des plages sont doux ; je veux que mes pieds nus le sentent. Toute connaissance qui n'est pas précédée d'une sensation m'est inutile.'

Gide, Les Nourritures terrestres (1897)

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